The word is derived from the management of the English language is "manage" which means taking care of, manage, control, exploit, lead.
Here the notion of management according to some experts:
- According to Drs. Oey Liang Lee Management is the art and science of organizing the planning, preparation, direction and control rather than human resources to achieve the goals set.
- According to Terry R. Management is the process of planning, organizing and use of resources other organizations in order to achieve organizational goals pliers have been set.
- According to James A.F. Stoner Management is a typical process that consists of the actions of planning, organizing, and controlling performed to determine and achieve the targets that have been determined through the use of human resources and other resources.
- According to Lawrence A. Appley Management is the art of achieving goals made through the efforts of others
- According to Koontz and Cyril O'Donnell Horold Management is an attempt to achieve a certain goal through the activities of others.
- According to Mary Parker Follett Management is an art, because to do a job through someone else takes special skills.
Actually there are many versions of the definition of management, however, the notion of management itself is generally that we can make the handle is:
"Management is a process that consists of a series of activities, such as planning, organizing, and controlling / monitoring, which is done to determine and achieve the objectives that have been established through the use of human resources and other resources"
Levels of management and managers.
Judging from the level of organization, management is divided into three levels, namely:
1. Top Management (Top Management)
Bertaggungjawab top managers influence decisions ditmbulkan of the overall management of the organization. For example: director, deputy director, chief executive officer. The expertise of its managers tinggkat peak is conceptual, meaning the expertise to create and mmerumuskan concept to be implemented by the manager level below it.
2. Management Medium (Middle Management)
Middle management should memeiliki interpersonal skills / human, means skill to communicate, collaborate and motivate others. The manager responsible for implementing Reana and ensure the achievement of a goal. For example: area manager, head of the division, director of product.
3. Under Management / Line (Low Management)
Manager responsible for completing the plans that have been established by managers higher. At this tngkatan also have the expertise that technical expertise, meens yahng expertise include procedures, techniques, knowledge and expertise in a specialized field. For example: supervisor / production supervisor, foreman.
Here is a management scheme based tingkatanya:
Dilihart of the activities carried out:
- Functional Manager, is responsible for an organizational unit activity (production, marketing, finance, personnel, etc.)
- General Manager, responsible for all activities of the unit.
In the task, each level managers main refugees or have different skills, namely:
1. Technical Skills (Technical Skill) that expertise on how mengaerjakan and produce something teriri for the direction and motivation, supervision, and kemunikasi.
2. Managerial Skills (Managerial Skill) that expertise related to goal setting terms of planning, organizing, preparation of personnel, and supervision.
In general, there are skills emat managers at each level managers:
1. Conceptual Skills
Skill or mental ability to coordinate and integrate all interests and activities of the organization.
2. Skills Humanity
Ability to cooperate there with understanding and motivating others.
3. Skills Administration
The ability that has to do with the management functions performed.
4. Skills Techniques
The ability to use the equipment, procedures, and methods of a particular field.
Robert L. Katz in the 1970s suggested that every manager needs a minimum of three basic skills. These three skills are:
1. Conceptual Skills (conceptional skills)
Top-level managers (top manager) must have the skills to create concepts, ideas, and ideas for the betterment of the organization. Of ideas and concepts are then be translated into an action plan to realize the idea or concept. The process of elaboration of the idea into a concrete plan of work was usually referred to as the planning process or planning. Therefore, conceptual skills also meruipakan skills to make the plan work.
2. Skills relate to other people (humanity skill)
In addition to conceptual capabilities, managers also need to be equipped with communication skills or the skills to relate to others, which is also called human skills. Persuasive communication must always be created by the manager to subordinates lead. With persuasive communication, friendship, and fatherhood will make employees feel valued and then they will be open to the boss. Communication skills required, both at the level of top management, middle, or bottom.
3. The technical skills (technical skills)
These skills are generally a provision for managers at lower levels. This technical skill is the ability to perform a particular job, for example using a computer program, repairing the machine, making the seats, accounting and others.
In addition to the above three basic skills, Ricky W. Griffin added two basic skills that need to be owned managers, namely:
1. Time management skills
A skill that refers to the ability of a manager to use his time wisely.
2. Decision-making skills
Is the ability to define the problem and determine the best way to solve it. Decision-making ability is the most important for a manager, especially for group managers (top manager).
In the sense that it is said that the management is the process of achieving goals through the work of others. Thus there is a management means in at least 4 (four) characteristics, namely:
1. there is a goal to be achieved,
2. No leader (boss),
3. No-led (subordinate),
4. no cooperation.
Specifically concerning the issue leader (supervisor) must have various abilities (skills). Ability (skills) is comprised of:
1. Managerial skills (entrepreneurial), the ability to effectively use the opportunity and ability to lead important efforts.
2. techological skills, the specialized skills that are economically necessary technical on the implementation of economic work.
3. Organisational skills, the intelligence to organize a variety of businesses.
In fact, not every leader must have all the capabilities with the same intensity level. For the leaders themselves can be grouped into three (3) levels. So the ability to be owned was certainly different.
As for the level of leadership or management consists of:
1. Top Management (Upper Level)
2. Middle Management (Intermediate)
3. Lower Management (Level Low).
In Management are management functions that are closely related in it. In general, there are four functions of management are widely known to the public, namely:
Ø planning function (planning)
Ø function of organizing (organizing)
Ø guidance function (directing)
Ø control function (controlling)
For organizing function there are also staffing functions (establishment staff). The managers in the organization of business enterprises are expected to master all the functions of the existing management to get the maximum management.
Below will be explained the meaning of the definition or understanding of their respective management functions:
1. Function Planning / Planning
Planning function is an activity to make the company's goal and followed by making various plans to achieve the intended purpose.
2. Organizing Function / Organizing
Perngorganisasian function is an arrangement of activities on human resources and other physical resources owned by the company to carry out a predetermined plan and achieve the company's goals.
3. Functions Directing / Directing / Leading
Function is a function of leadership directing managers to improve the effectiveness and efficiency to the maximum and create a healthy working environment, dynamic, and so forth.
4. Function Control / Controlling
The control function is an activity to assess the performance based standards that have been made to subsequently made changes or improvements if necessary.
FIELD OF MANAGEMENT
The following are areas of general management contained in an institution or company, namely:
1. PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT -> Field management implemented industrial enterprises, function in regulating the activity of creation / adding value to the goods / services.
Production management activities include:
1. Planning (design) production
2. Control (related to inventory) production
3. Production Supervision (related to the quality / quality control)
2. MARKETING MANAGEMENT -> field management to analyze in creating, establishing and maintaining a profitable market share.
Marketing management activities include:
1. Market research is an important part to know the desires, attitudes and behavior of consumers towards the product to be sold.
2. Market segmentation which is the process of dividing the market into groups of consumers who will be served by the company.
3. FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT -> Field management issues related to capital, receipt and expenditure of money, and guarantee the liquidity and solvency of the Company.
Financial management has the task, among others:
take advantage of opportunities in obtaining funds internally and externally
The allocation of funds to support the activities of the company.
4. MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL -> Personnel management is part of the management to focus on power production factors kerjadalam suatun yant organization that has set the goal can be achieved optimally.
Personnel management activities, among others;
employee screening to determine the appropriate positions.
training and education for employees.
Provide facilities, welfare and satisfactory salary.
Dmemberikan motivate employees with awards to outstanding employees.
5. MANAGEMENT ADMINISTRATION / ACCOUNTING -> field management commissioned a record of all transactions / events to produce the information in the form of economic data that the financial statements For management decision making.
Credible form of administrative management, among others:
Administrating all activities
Inventory of office equipment
The provision of information needed for management purposes.
Doing pengasrsipan data so easily accessible that require
Thus the areas of management, in some institutions or companies may have occurred for field management concurrently with other fields, for example: Administration / Accounting with Finance.